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amygdalin 

Bitter almond seed extract amygdalin

Source: bitter almond seed

Active Ingredient: Amygdalin

Latin Name: Semen Armeniacae Amarum

Specification: 1%-99%

Test Method: HPLC UV

Grade: Pharmaceutical Grade

Appearance: White Fine Powder

Extraction Type: Solvent Extraction

 

Amygdalin intruduction:

Amygdalin, also known as laevomandelonitrile or laetrile, is isolated from the seeds of the tree Prunus dulcis, also known as bitter almonds. Since the early 1950s, a modified form of amygdalin has been promoted under the names laetrile and "Vitamin B17" as a cancer cure. In reality, neither amygdalin nor any derivative such as laetrile is in any sense a vitamin.

Laetrile is the purified form of the compound amygdalin, which is found naturally in fruits and vegetables, particularly in the apricot pits and bitter almonds.

 Amygdalin was first isolated in 1830 and was used as an anticancer agent in Russia as early as It is believed that laetrile relieves the pain of cancer. One theory is that cancer cells contain large quantities of the enzyme beta-glucosidase. This enzyme breaks the amygdalin down and releases cyanide, a toxic chemical that then kills cancer cells.

 

Amygdalin Main function:

 1.Lower gas cough and asthma, laxative.For cough wheezing, chest tightness, and blood deficiency, constipation.

2.Amygdalin have anti-mutagenic effects.Contained in the protein composition, there is significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

3.Amygdalin has a certain anti-tumor and enhance immune function,etc.

Amygdalin Application:

1. Pharmaceuticals&Dietary Supplement, such as capsules or tablets.

2.Beverages:Tabletop Sweeteners, Yoghurts, Ice Creams,Baked Goods: Breads, Cakes, Cookies, Brownies, Pies

3.cosmetic filed for the treatment of anti-skin cancer.

 

Amygdalin HPLC content test

MOA of Amygdalin

HPLC chromatographic conditions are carried out as following: column is packed with the octadecyl silane chemically bonded silica, flowing phase is composed with methanol and water (20:80). detection wavelength:210nm;flow rate:1.0ml/min.

Methods:

1) Precisely measure the product 0.3g, put it into conical flask , add 50 ml 70% methanol, accurately weighed, supersonic treatment (power 250W, frequency 35kHz), cool it. Weight again. Using 70% methanol to make up the lost. Shake up. Filtering. Measuring off 5ml filtrate. Add it into 25ml brown glass flask volumetric. Add methanol to index mark. Shake up. That is test solution.

  • taking amygdalin reference samples, weigh precisely, add 70% ethanol to make 80ug/ml solution

3)Injection standard substance solution and sample solution each  10 μ l, in the provision of chromatographic conditions, chromatographic analysis and record chromatograph chart, according to the external standard method to peak area computation.

References:

 1.Akahori, A. and Kagawa, K., Enzymatic hydrolysis of amygdalin in “Tōnin,” “Kyōnin” and a traditional preparation containing “Tōnin”. Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 37, 241–247 (1983).

2.Cairns, T., Froberg, J. E., Gonzales, S., Langham, W. S., Stamp, J. J., Howie, J. K., and Sawyer, D. T., Analytical chemistry of amygdalin. Anal. Chem., 50, 317–322 (1978).
3.Culliton, B. J. and Sloan-Kettering: The Trials of an Apricot Pit. Science, 182, 1000–1001 (1973).
4.Dybowski, R., Examination of amygdalin preparations. Anal. Proc., 18, 316–318(1978).
5.Fischer, E., Ueber ein neudes dem amygdalin ahnliches glucosid. Ber. Deut. Chem. Ges., 28, 1508–1511(1985).
6.Heisman, D. R. and Knight, D. J., The enzymic hydrolysis of amygdalin. Biochem. J., 103, 528–534(1967).
7.Hwang, E. Y., Lee, J. H., Lee, Y. M., and Hong, S. P., Reversephase HPLC separation of D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin and optimum conditions for inhibition of racemization of amygdalin. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 50, 1373–1375 (2002).
8.Isozaki, T., Matano, Y., Yamamoto, K., Kosaka, N., and Tani, T., Quantitative determination of amygdalin epimers by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 923, 249–254 (2001).
9.Koo, J. Y., Hwang, E. Y., Cho, S. H., Lee, J. H., Lee, Y. M., and Hong, S. P., Quantitative determination of amygdalin epimers from armeniacae semen by liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. B, 814, 69–73 (2005).
10.Smith, D. J. and Weber, J. D., Preparative and analytical separation of amygdalin and related compounds in injectables and tablets by reversed-phase HPLC and the effect of temperature on the separation. J. Chromatogr. Sci., 22, 94–98 (1984).
11.Stobaugh, J. E., Sternson, L. A., and Repta, A. J., Clinical method for analysis of amygdalin in human-plasma. Anal. Lett., 9, 753–764 (1978).
12.Takayama, Y. and Kawai, S., Improved gas chromatography of amygdalin and its diastereomer. J. Chromatogr., 197, 240–245 (1980).
13.Takayama, Y. and Kawai, S., Study on the prevention of racemization of amygdalin. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 32, 778–781(1984).
14.Xu, L. and Wang, W., Xing Ren (apricot kernel, semen pruni armeniacae). Chin. Mater. Med., 431–432 (2002). 
15.The Pharmacokinetics of Amygdalin
A. G. Rauws, M. Olling, A. Timmerman in Archives of Toxicology (1982)
16.Improvement of the extraction efficiency of d-amygdalin from Armeniacae Semen powder through inactivating emulsin and suppressing the epimerization of d-amygdalin
Armeniacae Semen contains not only amygdalin but also emulsin, which is an enzyme that hydrolyzes amygdalin. This hydrolysis reaction has been a major...d-amygdalin, the extraction time was kept to less...d-amygdalin
Ha-Jeong Kwon, Je-Hyun Lee, Seon-Pyo Hong in Archives of Pharmacal Research (2010)

17.THE AMYGDALIN (‘LAETRILE’) CLINICAL TRIAL BY THE NCI
InPharma (1981)

18.Apricot kernal extract (amygdalin): serious health risks
Reactions Weekly (2016)

19.Pharmacology of amygdalin (laetrile) in cancer patients
Plasma and urine concentrations of amygdalin, whole-blood concentrations of cyanide, and...2...) and oral (500-mg tablet) administration of amygdalin. To measure low plasma concentrations of amygdalin following o...

Matthew M. Ames, Thomas P. Moyer, John S. Kovach… in Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology (1981)

20.Prevention of epimerization and quantitative determination of amygdalin in Armeniacae Semen with Schizandrae Fructus solution
Armeniacae Semen not only contains amygdalin, but emulsin also, which is an enzyme that hydrolyzes amygdalin. The extraction yield of amygdalin from Armeniacae Semen was low, due to ... solution was used as the e...

Woo-Sang Joo, Ji-Seon Jeong, Hyogeun Kim, Yong-Moon Lee… in Archives of Pharmacal Research (2006)

21.Application of a quantitative 1H-NMR method for the determination of amygdalin in Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus
A quantitative 1H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure the amygdalin content of Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus, in each of which amygdalin constitutes a major component. The purity of amygdalin

Rie Tanaka, Akane Nitta, Akito Nagatsu in Journal of Natural Medicines (2014)

22.Simple screening procedure for microorganisms to degrade amygdalin
Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside occurring among others ... screening microbial cultures for their ability to degrade amygdalin is a convenient micro-titre version based...

L. Brimer, G. Tunçel, M. J. R. Nout in Biotechnology Techniques (1993)

23.Pharmacokinetic Effects of Cinnamic Acid, Amygdalin, Glycyrrhizic Acid and Liquiritin on Alkaloids in Rats
alkaloids, including (EP), pseudo (PEP) and methyl (MEP), are sympathomimetic compounds with known toxicities but many ( e herba...) preparations, such as ...

Yinghong Tang, Mengkai Zheng, Yu-Lin Chen… in European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Ph… (2017)

24.Cyanide formation in preparations from Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck: Effect of sonication and amygdalin addition
A critical evaluation of a method for recovering HCN from cell extracts is presented. Since crude extracts often bind or metabolize HCN extensively, the HCN recovered by distillation at room temperature repres...

Hans-Siegfried Gewitz, Elfriede K. Pistorius, Helga Voss, Birgit Vennesland in Planta (1976)

25.In vitro and in silico anticancer activity of amygdalin on the SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell line
In spite of several studies that have shown the cytotoxic effects of amygdalin on the different cancer cell lines, however, the chemopreventive potential of amygdalin on the breast cancer cell line is ... complet...

Bahman Moradipoodeh, Mostafa Jamalan, Majid Zeinali… in Molecular Biology Reports (2019)

26.Über ein neues, dem Amygdalin ähnliches Glucosid
Das Amygdalin, welches bekanntlich durch Emulsin im Sinne der... gespalten wird, ist schon vor 25 Jahren von Hrn. Hugo Schiff1) mit dem ...

Emil Fischer in Untersuchungen Über Kohlenhydrate und Fermente (1884–1908) (1909)

27.Sensitive Monitoring of Amygdalin and 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Food Supplements Using HILIC OH5 Chromatography
Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside found in pits ... Recently, in some countries, food supplements containing amygdalin have been offered for the use in the alternative cancer treatment. The effectivity of amygdalin

Lucie Havlíková, Martina Parmová, Petr Chocholouš, Petr Solich in Food Analytical Methods (2016)

28.The anti-cancer effect of amygdalin on human cancer cell lines
Derived from rosaceous plant seed, amygdalin belongs to aromatic cyanogenic glycoside group, and ... In this study, we objected to investigate amygdalin effect on two antiapoptotic genes (Survivin, XIAP) and two ...

Asghar Arshi, Sayed Mostafa Hosseini… in Molecular Biology Reports (2019)

29.The pharmacokinetics of amygdalin
Amygdalin (d-mandelonitrile-β-d...-gentiobioside) is a cyanogenic glycoside claimed to show anti-cancer activity, sold under the incorrect name “Laetrile”. For a sensible discussion of its alleged activity and it...

A. G. Rauws, M. Olling, A. Timmerman in Archives of Toxicology (1982)

30.Synergistic and protective effect of atorvastatin and amygdalin against histopathological and biochemical alterations in Sprague-Dawley rats with experimental endometriosis
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of combined atorvastatin and amygdalin in a rat model of endometriosis. Tumor ... suggested that combined treatment consisting of atorvastatin a...

Fang Hu, Yichuan Hu, Fangxin Peng in AMB Express (2019)

 


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