Coagulant polysaccharides are water-insoluble glucans.
Coagulating polysaccharides are a general term for a class of polysaccharides produced by microorganisms that form both hard and elastic thermally irreversible gels and thermally reversible gels when their suspensions are heated with a β-mono(1→3) monoglycosidic bond.
Applications in the food industry
Gel polysaccharides are widely used in various fields of the food industry because of their good processing adaptability such as water retention, freezing resistance, heat resistance, adhesion and film-forming properties. Various special preparations for different foods have been developed and applied. Gel polysaccharides can be used as both food additives and main ingredients in food.
1.1 Application in meat products
Examples of the application of gel polysaccharide in food
The water absorption rate of gel polysaccharide is maximum at 50-60℃, and this property makes it suitable for application in meat products. In meat processing, gel polysaccharide can improve the water holding capacity of sausage and ham, and adding 0.2 to 1% gel polysaccharide to hamburger forms fluffy, juicy and high yield hamburger after cooking. In addition, using its film-forming property, the surface of hamburger and fried chicken is coated to reduce the weight loss of the product during grilling, and the meat is juicy and has a smooth and soft taste. The coating method is 5% gel polysaccharide, 0.5% starch, 94.5% water mixed and dispersed, the covered food in which the impregnation 5 ~ 15s, after taking out in 125 ~ 130 ℃ oil bath heating 30 ~ 40s, to oil cooling, and then sharply frozen or refrigerated, conditioning can be reheated baking or frying.
1.2 Application in noodle products
Gel polysaccharide applied to Chinese noodles, soba noodles, cut noodles, can enhance the hardness, elasticity and viscosity of noodles, improve the taste, inhibit hot water swelling, reduce cooking, reduce soup mixing. The amount used is 0.3-1% of wheat flour, commonly used amount 0.4%. The gelatinous polysaccharide is mixed with wheat flour first, and then mixed with other ingredients to make noodles. Tofu is a traditional food in Japan and China, it has a soft texture, the 4% gel polysaccharide mixed with tofu coagulant used in soy milk, squeezing and heating can be made tofu noodles, giving it a different texture, and can also be sterilized at high temperature, can also be refrigerated.
1.3 Application in aquatic products
Gel polysaccharide is used in aquatic products, such as fish cake, fried fish cake, fish round, frozen fish mince, etc. It can enhance the elasticity and bite of the products, and at the same time make them harder for the molding operation. The amount used is generally 0.7% of the amount of minced fish. When using, the gel polysaccharide will be modulated into low strength gel first, then added into the minced fish.
1.4 Application in baked products
Using the moisture preservation and shape preservation characteristics of gel polysaccharide, it can also be added to cakes such as cakes and cheese cakes. The appearance is not sunken when processing, and the moisturizing property is good after processing, even if it is refrigerated, it will not produce aging and sandy phenomenon, and the use amount is generally 0.1~0.4%. Gel polysaccharide is used for bread, pie liquidity filling, because of the gel effect can make it maintain the appropriate shape, easy to operate. Change the amount of its addition can be adjusted to its hardness and shape retention. Such as honey, cream, salsa type flavor filling, the amount used is generally 2 to 5%.
1.5 Application in frozen products
Gel polysaccharide as a stabilizer applied to ice cream can improve its conformability. The best effect is to combine gel polysaccharide with other stabilizers. The amount used is generally 0.2~0.3%. The recipe and operation points of an ice cream are as follows: whole condensed milk 12, skim milk powder 8.0, unsalted cream 15.5, sugar 3.0, caramel 5.0, egg yolk 1.0, emulsifier (OM) 0.2, spices (vanillin) 0.1, water 55, gel polysaccharide 0.2. Mix it first and heat treat it up to 85℃, homogenize (100MPa)
1.6 Application in other products
Gel polysaccharide is used in strawberry jam, honey and mayonnaise and other sticky and not easy to manipulate flavors, you can make strawberry slices, honey slices and mayonnaise slices, etc. These slices can be eaten directly as flavored snacks, but also can be used for sandwich, sandwich filling, rolled sushi core, etc. Vegetables, fruits, and meat products can be made into flakes with gel polysaccharides. These foods can be stored frozen and do not melt when heated during use. Gel polysaccharide is used as a key component in the production of vegetarian sausages, giving such sausages the textural taste and texture of full-fat sausages. It also replaces fat in cheese products to prevent dehydration and shrinkage of sour cream and low-fat acidic thin cream. The pasteurization temperature of most milk processes is appropriate for gel polysaccharide gels. Gel polysaccharides can also be used to make green tea flavored jellies, which can be frozen for storage and microwaved before serving. Gel polysaccharide contains 98.6% dietary fiber, which can be used as a functional food ingredient for low heat, weight loss, prevention of constipation, etc., and production of health food.
Application in chemical industry
The filler of gel columns used in chemical industry is usually dextran. Some scientists have studied the use of condensed polysaccharide instead of dextran as a filler in the column and achieved good separation results. Foreign countries have started to produce condensed polysaccharides for this purpose. The mixture prepared by coagulated polysaccharide and activated carbon can effectively remove heavy metal elements from Chinese herbal medicine, which is especially beneficial for the development of traditional Chinese medicine; and it is also effective as thickener, suspending agent, stabilizer, moisturizing agent and rheology improving agent in cosmetic industry, thus it can be applied in various types of cosmetics.
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